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 λ Bootis stars with composite spectraWe examine the large sample of λ Boo candidates collected inTable 1 of Gerbaldi et al. (\cite{Gerbaldi2003}) to see how many of themshow composite spectra. Of the 132 λ Boo candidates we identify22 which definitely show composite spectra and 15 more for which thereare good reasons to suspect a composite spectrum. The percentage ofλ Boo candidates with composite spectra is therefore >17% andpossibly considerably higher. For such stars the λ Booclassification should be reconsidered taking into account the fact thattheir spectra are composite. We argue that some of the underabundancesreported in the literature may simply be the result of the failure toconsider the composite nature of the spectra. This leads to thelegitimate suspicion that some, if not all, the λ Boo candidatesare not chemically peculiar at all. A thorough analysis of even a singleone of the λ Boo candidates with composite spectra, in which thecomposite nature of the spectrum is duly considered, which woulddemonstrate that the chemical peculiarities persist, would clear thedoubt we presently have that the stars with composite spectra may not beλ Boo stars at all.Based on observations collected at ESO (Echelec spectrograph) and at TBL(Telescope Bernard Lyot) of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France). CaII K interstellar observations towards early-type disc and halo starsWe present high-resolution (R=λ/Δλ~ 40000) CaII Kinterstellar observations (λair= 3933.66Å)towards 88 mainly B-type stars, of which 74 are taken from theEdinburgh-Cape or Palomar-Green surveys, and 81 have |b| > 25°.The majority of the data come from previously existing spectroscopy,although also included are 18 new observations of stars with echellespectra taken with UVES on the Very Large Telescope UT2 (Kueyen). Some49 of the sample stars have distance estimates above the Galactic plane(|z|) >= 1 kpc, and are thus good probes of the halo interstellarmedium. Of the 362 interstellar Ca K components that we detect, 75 (21per cent) have absolute values of their LSR velocity values exceeding 40km s-1. In terms of the deviation velocity for the sightlineswith distance estimates, 46/273 (17 per cent) of components havevelocity values exceeding those predicted by standard Galactic rotationby more than 40 km s-1. Combining this data set with previousobservations, we find that the median value of the reduced equivalentwidth (REW) of stars with |z| >= 1 kpc (EW×sin|b|) is ~115mÅ (n= 80), similar to that observed in extragalactic sightlinesby Bowen. Using data of all z distances, the REW at infinity is found tobe ~130 mÅ, with the scaleheight (l) of the CaII K column densitydistribution being ~800 pc (n= 196) and reduced column density atinfinity of log[N(CaII K) cm-2]~12.24. This implies that ~30per cent of CaII K absorption occurs at distances exceeding ~1 kpc. Fornine sightlines with distance exceeding 1 kpc and with a companionobject within 5°, we find that all but two have values of CaIIreduced equivalent width the same to within ~20 per cent, when the REWof the nearest object is extrapolated to the distance of the further ofthe pair, and assuming l= 800 pc. For 29 of our sightlines with |z|>= 1 kpc and a HI detection from the Leiden-Dwingeloo survey(beamsize of 0.5°), we find log(N(CaII K)/N(HI)) ranging from -7.4to -8.4. Values of the CaII K abundance relative to neutral hydrogen(log[N(CaIIK)cm-2]-log[N(HI)cm-2]) are found to bemore than ~0.5dex higher in stars with distances exceeding ~100 pc, whencompared with the (log[N(CaII K) cm-2]-log[N(Htot) cm-2]) values found in nearbysightlines such as those in Wakker & Mathis (2000). Finally, stellarCaII K equivalent widths of the sample are determined for 26 objects. The heterogeneous class of lambda Bootis starsWe demonstrate that it is arduous to define the lambda Boo stars as aclass of objects exhibiting uniform abundance peculiarities which wouldbe generated by a mechanism altering the structure of their atmosphericlayers. We collected the stars classified as lambda Boo up to now anddiscuss their properties, in particular the important percentage ofconfirmed binaries producing composite spectra (including our adaptiveoptics observations) and of misclassified objects. The unexplained RVvariables (and thus suspected binaries), the known SB for which we lackinformation on the companion, the stars with an UV flux inconsistentwith their classification, and the fast rotating stars for which noaccurate abundance analysis can be performed, are also reviewed.Partly based on observations collected at the CFH Telescope (Hawaii) andat TBL of the Pic du Midi Observatory (France).Table \ref{tab5} is only available in electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org Rotational Velocities of B StarsWe measured the projected rotational velocities of 1092 northern B starslisted in the Bright Star Catalogue (BSC) and calibrated them againstthe 1975 Slettebak et al. system. We found that the published values ofB dwarfs in the BSC average 27% higher than those standards. Only 0.3%of the stars have rotational velocities in excess of two-thirds of thebreakup velocities, and the mean velocity is only 25% of breakup,implying that impending breakup is not a significant factor in reducingrotational velocities. For the B8-B9.5 III-V stars the bimodaldistribution in V can be explained by a set of slowly rotating Ap starsand a set of rapidly rotating normal stars. For the B0-B5 III-V starsthat include very few peculiar stars, the distributions in V are notbimodal. Are the low rotational velocities of B stars due to theoccurrence of frequent low-mass companions, planets, or disks? Therotational velocities of giants originating from late B dwarfs areconsistent with their conservation of angular momentum in shells.However, we are puzzled by why the giants that originate from the earlyB dwarfs, despite having 3 times greater radii, have nearly the samerotational velocities. We find that all B-type primaries in binarieswith periods less than 2.4 days have synchronized rotational and orbitalmotions; those with periods between 2.4 and 5.0 days are rotating withina factor 2 of synchronization or are nearly synchronized.'' Thecorresponding period ranges for A-type stars are 4.9 and 10.5 days, ortwice as large. We found that the rotational velocities of the primariesare synchronized earlier than their orbits are circularized. The maximumorbital period for circularized B binaries is 1.5 days and for Abinaries is 2.5 days. For stars of various ages from 107.5 to1010.2 yr the maximum circularized periods are a smoothexponential function of age. Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statisticsThe Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521 How many lambda Bootis stars are binaries?In the attempt to shed new light on the lambda Boo phenomenon weanalyzed the astrometric, photometric and spectroscopic characteristicsof stars out of a list of recently selected lambda Boo candidates. Weshow that the class is still ill-defined and discuss the possibilitythat some, if not most stars presently classified as lambda Boo, are infact binary pairs and that peculiar abundances may not correspond toactual values if the average values of the atmospheric parameters{Teff} and log g are assumed and the effect of veiling is nottaken into account. Partly based on data from the ESA Hipparcosastrometry satellite. Rotational Velocity Determinations for 164 Be and B StarsRotational velocities, v sin i, have been obtained for 96 Be and 68normal B stars by measurements of the FWHM of the He I lambda-4471 line(for spectral types B0-B4.5) and Mg II lambda-4481 (for types B5-B9.5).The consistency of various published sources is examined. (SECTION:Stars) The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars. The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type StarsAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with. A high-resolution optical and radio study of Milky Way halo gasOptical interstellar absorption lines of Ti II and Ca II and the 21 cmemission line of H I were observed at high-resolution (6 and 1 km/s,respectively) and high detection sensitivity along 25 lines of sight inthe Galactic halo. The sample includes 16 distant halo stars matchedwith one or more nearly aligned foreground stars as well as local starsalong five extragalactic sight lines. The data show substantialinterstellar material, at both low and intermediate velocities, between250 and 1000 pc beyond the Galactic plane. As much as one-third of thetotal gas observed in Ca II absorption may be beyond 1 kpc, and thegaseous Ti II may lie in an even thicker layer. The directly determinedgaseous Ti abundance above the Galactic plane exceeds that in the disk,on the average, by a factor of 4 to 6 and, for individual cloudcomponents, is further enhanced at higher LSR velocity. Thirty threediscrete high-latitude clouds are detected in Ca II absorption, and 17discrete clouds, including three high-velocity clouds, are identified inH I emission. The kinematics of the high-latitude gas observed in Ti IIand Ca II absorption is characterized by significant peculiar velocitieswith respect to a model corotating halo. An Einstein Observatory SAO-based catalog of B-type starsAbout 4000 X-ray images obtained with the Einstein Observatory are usedto measure the 0.16-4.0 keV emission from 1545 B-type SAO stars fallingin the about 10 percent of the sky surveyed with the IPC. Seventy-fourdetected X-ray sources with B-type stars are identified, and it isestimated that no more than 15 can be misidentified. Upper limits to theX-ray emission of the remaining stars are presented. In addition tosummarizing the X-ray measurements and giving other relevant opticaldata, the present extensive catalog discusses the reduction process andanalyzes selection effects associated with both SAO catalog completenessand IPC target selection procedures. It is concluded that X-rayemission, at the level of Lx not less than 10 exp 30 ergs/s, is quitecommon in B stars of early spectral types (B0-B3), regardless ofluminosity class, but that emission, at the same level, becomes lesscommon, or nonexistent, in later B-type stars. Empirical temperature calibrations for early-type starsThree temperature calibrations of suitable photometric quantities havebeen derived for O and B stars. A sample of 120 stars with reliableT(eff.) determinations has been used for establishing each calibration.The different calibrations have been critically discussed and compared.Temperature determinations for 1009 program stars have been obtainedwith an accuracy of the order of 10 percent. ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. I - A survey for duplicity among the bright starsA survey of a sample of 672 stars from the Yale Bright Star Catalog(Hoffleit, 1982) has been carried out using speckle interferometry onthe 3.6-cm Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope in order to establish thebinary star frequency within the sample. This effort was motivated bythe need for a more observationally determined basis for predicting thefrequency of failure of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) fine-guidancesensors to achieve guide-star lock due to duplicity. This survey of 426dwarfs and 246 evolved stars yielded measurements of 52 newly discoveredbinaries and 60 previously known binary systems. It is shown that thefrequency of close visual binaries in the separation range 0.04-0.25arcsec is 11 percent, or nearly 3.5 times that previously known. The local system of early type stars - Spatial extent and kinematicsPublished uvby and H-beta photometric data and proper motions arecompiled and analyzed to characterize the structure and kinematics ofthe bright early-type O-A0 stars in the solar vicinity, with a focus onthe Gould belt. The selection and calibration techniques are explained,and the data are presented in extensive tables and graphs and discussedin detail. The Gould belt stars of age less than 20 Myr are shown togive belt inclination 19 deg to the Galactic plane and node-lineorientation in the direction of Galactic rotation, while the symmetricaldistribution about the Galactic plane and kinematic properties (purecircular differential rotation) of the belt stars over 60 Myr oldresemble those of fainter nonbelt stars of all ages. The unresolveddiscrepancy between the expansion observed in the youngest nearby starsand the predictions of simple models of expansion from a point isattributed to the inhomogeneous distribution of interstellar matter. Radial velocities of northern Mercury starsAbout 200 radial velocities of 96 bright northern Hg-Mn or candidateHg-Mn stars are presented. Past and present data have been reexaminedfor periodic variability in cases that were neither previously known tobe binaries with well determined orbits nor were considered to haveconstant velocity. One definite new orbit was found (that of HR 3361)and several possible orbital solutions are given. Four-colour photometry of B stars north of B = + 45 deg and comparison with the southFour-color photometry of 33 Henry Draper B stars north of b = + 45 degis presented. Most are little-reddened B or intermediate-A stars. A newAm star is discovered. The new measures essentially complete uvbyphotometry of all HD B stars within 45 deg of either galactic pole. Thenorthern and southern cones of HD B stars are compared, and selectioneffects deduced. Far from the galactic plane, it appears that B starsmay be equally distributed north and south of the plane; closer to thesun, an asymmetry associated with Gould's Belt is evident. A magnitude limited stellar X-ray survey and the F star X-ray luminosity functionAn X-ray survey has been conducted of stars brighter than visualmagnitude 8.5 that have serendipitously fallen into the fields of viewof the Imaging Proportional Counter of the Einstein Observatory. Thesurvey includes 227 separate 1 x 1 deg fields, containing 274 stars witha visual magnitude of no more than 8.5 and covering a wide range ofspectral types and luminosity classes. X-ray emission was detected from33 stars, and upper limits have been determined for the remainder of thesample. F type stars dominate the detected sample, and most of these areshown to be dwarfs. An X-ray luminosity function for dF stars has beendeduced, and reveals that the average 0.2-4.0 keV luminosity of thesestars is around 10 to the 29th erg/sec. Constraints have been placed onthe high luminosity tails and medians of the X-ray luminosity functionsfor other types of stars. Uvby-Beta Photometry of Equatorial and Southern Bright Stars - Part TwoAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1980A&AS...42..311H&db_key=AST Late B-type stars - Rotation and the incidence of HgMn starsHigh-dispersion spectrograms for an unbiased sample of 256 late B-typestars are examined in an attempt to determine whether slow rotation isnecessary and sufficient for the appearance of HgMn anomalies innonmagnetic stars. The peculiar stars in the sample are identified,values of v sin i are derived for all the stars observed, and theradial-velocity variations of the identified HgMn stars are analyzed.The distribution of rotational velocities for late B-type stars isobtained, and the role of rotation in producing extended envelopes isevaluated. The binary frequency and mass-ratio distribution are derivedfor systems containing HgMn components, the effect of duplicity on thedistribution of rotational velocities is estimated, and the role of suchfactors as rotation, age, and binary characteristics in determiningwhether HgMn anomalies are present is investigated. The results clearlyshow that HgMn stars occur only within a limited temperature range, thatall such stars rotate slowly, but that rotation, effective temperature,age, surface gravity, and binary properties do not serve to determinewhether a star will exhibit abundance anomalies. Is star formation bimodal ? II. The nearest early-type stars.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1977PASP...89..187E&db_key=AST Catalogue of early-type stars measured in a narrow-band photometric systemA compilation of the photoelectric measurements in the Barbier-Morguleffsystem is presented. The catalogue includes data for 773 stars ofspectral type 08 to F6. 706 stars have been measured at least twice. Multicolor photometry of metallic-line stars. III. A photometric catalogueAbstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1974RMxAA...1..175M&db_key=AST The manganese starsUltraviolet spectrograms of 194 middle and late B-type stars wereobtained in a search for Mn stars. The 24 Mn stars found in this searchlay within the limited temperature range from 0.33 to 0.48. Theirobserved rate of incidence and rotational velocity distributionsubstantiate the hypothesis that the Mn stars constitute a considerablefraction of the slowly rotating stars in this temperature range. If theatmospheres of these stars are sufficiently stable for diffusionprocesses to be effective, then it also becomes possible to account forthe temperature range in which the Mn overabundance occurs. Four-color and H beta photometry for the bright B8 and B9 type stars north of declination -10 degre.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1973AJ.....78..738C&db_key=AST Etude photometrique a bande etroite de l'emission dans les etoiles BeNot Available Measurements of the strength of Hα in 951 early-type starsNot Available U, b, v, and Hβ Photometry for the Bright B8- and B9-TYPE Stars.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1963ApJ...137..530C&db_key=AST Spectral Classification of 533 B8-A2 Stars and the Mean Absolute Magnitude of a0 V Stars.Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1959ApJ...130..159O&db_key=AST
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