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What a local sample of spectroscopic binaries can tell us about the field binary population
We study a sample of spectroscopic binaries (SBs) in the local solarneighbourhood (d<= 100 pc and MV<= 4) in an attempt tofind the distributions of the period, P, the primary mass,m1, and the mass ratio q(=m2/m1), aswell as the initial mass function (IMF) of the local population of fieldbinaries. The sample was collated using available SB data and theHipparcos catalogue, the latter being used for distances and to refernumbers of objects to fractions of the local stellar population as awhole. We use the better determined double-lined SBs (SB2s) to calibratea Monte Carlo approach to modelling the q distribution of thesingle-lined SBs (SB1s) from their mass functions, f(m), and primarymasses, m1. The totalq distribution is then found by addingthe observed SB2 distribution to the Monte Carlo SB1 distribution. Whilea complete sample is not possible, given the data available, we are ableto address important questions of incompleteness and parameter-specificbiases by comparing subsamples of SBs with different ranges in parameterspace. Our results show a clear peak in the q distribution of fieldbinaries near unity. This is dominated by the SB2s, but the flatdistribution of the SB1s is inconsistent with their components beingchosen independently at random from a steep IMF.

Astrometric orbits of SB^9 stars
Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) have been used to deriveastrometric orbital elements for spectroscopic binaries from the newlyreleased Ninth Catalogue of Spectroscopic Binary Orbits(SB^9). This endeavour is justified by the fact that (i) theastrometric orbital motion is often difficult to detect without theprior knowledge of the spectroscopic orbital elements, and (ii) suchknowledge was not available at the time of the construction of theHipparcos Catalogue for the spectroscopic binaries which were recentlyadded to the SB^9 catalogue. Among the 1374 binaries fromSB^9 which have an HIP entry (excluding binaries with visualcompanions, or DMSA/C in the Double and Multiple Stars Annex), 282 havedetectable orbital astrometric motion (at the 5% significance level).Among those, only 70 have astrometric orbital elements that are reliablydetermined (according to specific statistical tests), and for the firsttime for 20 systems. This represents a 8.5% increase of the number ofastrometric systems with known orbital elements (The Double and MultipleSystems Annex contains 235 of those DMSA/O systems). The detection ofthe astrometric orbital motion when the Hipparcos IAD are supplementedby the spectroscopic orbital elements is close to 100% for binaries withonly one visible component, provided that the period is in the 50-1000 drange and the parallax is >5 mas. This result is an interestingtestbed to guide the choice of algorithms and statistical tests to beused in the search for astrometric binaries during the forthcoming ESAGaia mission. Finally, orbital inclinations provided by the presentanalysis have been used to derive several astrophysical quantities. Forinstance, 29 among the 70 systems with reliable astrometric orbitalelements involve main sequence stars for which the companion mass couldbe derived. Some interesting conclusions may be drawn from this new setof stellar masses, like the enigmatic nature of the companion to theHyades F dwarf HIP 20935. This system has a mass ratio of 0.98 but thecompanion remains elusive.

Observational constraints for lithium depletion before the RGB
Precise Li abundances are determined for 54 giant stars mostly evolvingacross the Hertzsprung gap. We combine these data with rotationalvelocity and with information related to the deepening of the convectivezone of the stars to analyse their link to Li dilution in the referredspectral region. A sudden decline in Li abundance paralleling the onealready established in rotation is quite clear. Following similarresults for other stellar luminosity classes and spectral regions, thereis no linear relation between Li abundance and rotation, in spite of thefact that most of the fast rotators present high Li content. The effectsof convection in driving the Li dilution is also quite clear. Stars withhigh Li content are mostly those with an undeveloped convective zone,whereas stars with a developed convective zone present clear sign of Lidilution.Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla, Chile, and at theObservatoire de Haute Provence, France, operated by the Centre Nationalde la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS).

Reprocessing the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data of spectroscopic binaries. II. Systems with a giant component
By reanalyzing the Hipparcos Intermediate Astrometric Data of a largesample of spectroscopic binaries containing a giant, we obtain a sampleof 29 systems fulfilling a carefully derived set of constraints andhence for which we can derive an accurate orbital solution. Of these,one is a double-lined spectroscopic binary and six were not listed inthe DMSA/O section of the catalogue. Using our solutions, we derive themasses of the components in these systems and statistically analyzethem. We also briefly discuss each system individually.Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operatedby the European Space Agency (ESA 1997) and on data collected with theSimbad database.

Spectral Classification of the Hot Components of a Large Sample of Stars with Composite Spectra, and Implication for the Absolute Magnitudes of the Cool Supergiant Components.
A sample of 135 stars with composite spectra has been observed in thenear-UV spectral region with the Aurélie spectrograph at theObservatoire de Haute-Provence. Using the spectral classifications ofthe cool components previously determined with near infrared spectra, weobtained reliable spectral types of the hot components of the samplesystems. The hot components were isolated by the subtraction methodusing MK standards as surrogates of the cool components. We also derivedthe visual magnitude differences between the components usingWillstrop's normalized stellar flux ratios. We propose a photometricmodel for each of these systems on the basis of our spectroscopic dataand the Hipparcos data. We bring to light a discrepancy for the Gsupergiant primaries between the visual absolute magnitudes deduced fromHipparcos parallaxes and those tabulated by Schmidt-Kaler for the GIbstars: we propose a scale of Mv-values for these stars incomposite systems. By way of statistics, about 75% of the hot componentsare dwarf or subgiant stars, and 25% should be giants. The distributionin spectral types is as follows: 41% of B-type components, 57% of typeA, and 2% of type F; 68% of the hot components have a spectral type inthe range B7 to A2. The distribution of the ΔMv-valuesshows a maximum near 0.75 mag.

Spectroscopic binary orbits from photoelectric radial velocities. Paper 161: BD+45 41 and HD 214974
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Spectroscopic binary orbits from photoelectric radial velocities. Paper 157: HD 192644
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Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521

The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222

Dating Ptolemy's star catalogue through proper motions : the Hipparchan epoch.
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Empirical Luminosities and Radii of Early-Type Stars after Hipparcos
Using Hipparcos parallaxes we derive empirical luminosities and radii ofthe early-type stars for which the effective temperatures are known fromdirectly measured angular diameters and total absolute fluxes. Theempirical luminosities allow a direct comparison of the position ofthese stars in the fundamental HR diagram with evolutionary tracks. Thecomparison shows an overall agreement with the Y=0.30 and Z=0.02 trackscomputed with OPAL opacities and moderate amount of overshooting fromthe convective core. In addition, we present evidence that systematicerrors of the masses read off the evolutionary tracks are below 10%.Consequently, the surface gravities obtained from these "evolutionary"masses and the empirical radii are very nearly model-independent.Spectrographic and photometric observations of these stars can thereforebe used for verifying model atmospheres and calibrating photometric logg indices.

Magnitudes absolues des étoiles standards MK des types G à M à partir des parallaxes Hipparcos. The absolute magnitudes of the G to M type MK standards from the Hipparcos parallaxes
We analyse a sample of about 500 MK standards of cool spectral types (Gto M) for to compare the visual absolute magnitudes obtained from bothHipparcos data and Schmidt-Kaler calibrations. Our purpose is tovalidate our spectroscopic work \cite[(Ginestet et al. 1997, 1999)]{G97}on stars with composite spectra with the help of Hipparcos data.Contrary to what is claimed in other papers, the absolute magnitudedomain devoted to the giant stars does not overlap the domain of dwarfs.We find that the discrepancies between absolute magnitudes fromHipparcos data and absolute magnitudes deduced from Schmidt-Kalercalibrations increase with the relative error sigma (pi )/pi on theparallaxes. So, for sigma (pi )/pi <= 0.05 only 3% of the starspresent a discrepancy of one luminosity class, while this percentagereaches 54% for 0.25 < sigma (pi )/pi <= 0.50. Curiously, theluminosity of the giants seems to increase with the distance of thestars, whereas the supergiants of the sample appear underluminous atleast for d < 600 pc! We point out a list of 14 MK standards whoseluminosity classes may be erroneous and need a new spectralclassification, in the near infrared. The case of composite-spectrumbinaries is also discussed. Most of these are too distant for accurateparallaxes even with Hipparcos: only sixteen stars have sigma (pi )/pi<= 0.10; for these, we give new spectral classifications in agreementwith both our classifications in the near infrared of the coolcomponents and Hipparcos data. Finally, for stars having high-precisionparallaxes (sigma (pi )/pi <= 5%) there is no serious problem forSchmidt-Kaler calibrations whith respect to Hipparcos data. The datacorresponding to parallaxes of lower precisions should be used withcaution and only for statistical analyses.

Composite spectra Paper 8: HD 4615/6
HD 4615/6 is a seventh-magnitude composite-spectrum binary system. Ithas an orbit of moderate eccentricity (0.43) and a period of 303 d. Thesystem is of course unresolved at the telescope, but we are able toseparate the spectra of the component stars and show that they are oftypes K2 III (HD 4615) and A2.5 V (HD 4616), with a mass ratio(giant:dwarf) of approximately 1.25. The orbital inclination is high,but there are no eclipses. The maximum apparent angular separation isexpected to be about 0.009 arcsec. Neither star's rotation issynchronized with the orbital motion.

From OAO2 to HST. A quarter of a century of ultraviolet astronomy.
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A catalog of rotational and radial velocities for evolved stars
Rotational and radial velocities have been measured for about 2000evolved stars of luminosity classes IV, III, II and Ib covering thespectral region F, G and K. The survey was carried out with the CORAVELspectrometer. The precision for the radial velocities is better than0.30 km s-1, whereas for the rotational velocity measurementsthe uncertainties are typically 1.0 km s-1 for subgiants andgiants and 2.0 km s-1 for class II giants and Ib supergiants.These data will add constraints to studies of the rotational behaviourof evolved stars as well as solid informations concerning the presenceof external rotational brakes, tidal interactions in evolved binarysystems and on the link between rotation, chemical abundance and stellaractivity. In this paper we present the rotational velocity v sin i andthe mean radial velocity for the stars of luminosity classes IV, III andII. Based on observations collected at the Haute--Provence Observatory,Saint--Michel, France and at the European Southern Observatory, LaSilla, Chile. Table \ref{tab5} also available in electronic form at CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Catalogs of temperatures and [Fe/H] averages for evolved G and K stars
A catalog of mean values of [Fe/H] for evolved G and K stars isdescribed. The zero point for the catalog entries has been establishedby using differential analyses. Literature sources for those entries areincluded in the catalog. The mean values are given with rms errors andnumbers of degrees of freedom, and a simple example of the use of thesestatistical data is given. For a number of the stars with entries in thecatalog, temperatures have been determined. A separate catalogcontaining those data is briefly described. Catalog only available atthe CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. III. Study of a sample of 137 objects with the Aurelie spectrograph
We provide spectral classifications for a sample of 137 stars mentionedas having composite spectra. The classifications were carried out on 33Angstroms /mm spectra in the region 8370 - 8870 Angstroms. Of these 137objects, 115 correspond in the infrared to cool stars (G, K or M) ofluminosity classes III, II and I; for 22 stars, we find only hot spectraof types B, A, F or Am, so that they do not fulfil our definition ofcomposite spectra. We detect four new Am stars, and one Am star (HD70826) turns out to be a composite spectrum object. As in Paper II, thecool components of composite spectra show a strong concentration in thevicinity of G8III. Based upon observations carried out at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP).

Diffraction-limited speckle masking interferometry of binary stars with the SAO 6-m telescope.
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The nature of visual components in 82 multiple systems.
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O. C. Wilson and his K-line intensities
Not Available

Ultraviolet and Optical Studies of Binaries with Luminous Cool Primaries and Hot Companions. V. The Entire IUE Sample
We have obtained or retrieved IUE spectra for over 100 middle- andlate-type giant and supergiant stars whose spectra indicate the presenceof a hot component earlier than type F2. The hot companions areclassified accurately by temperature class from their far-UV spectra.The interstellar extinction of each system and the relative luminositiesof the components are derived from analysis of the UV and opticalfluxes, using a grid of UV intrinsic colors for hot dwarfs. We find thatthere is fair agreement in general between current UV spectralclassification and ground-based hot component types, in spite of thedifficulties of assigning the latter. There are a few cases in which thecool component optical classifications disagree considerably with thetemperature classes inferred from our analysis of UV and opticalphotometry. The extinction parameter agrees moderately well with otherdeterminations of B-V color excess. Many systems are worthy of furtherstudy especially to establish their spectroscopic orbits. Further workis planned to estimate luminosities of the cool components from the dataherein; in many cases, these luminosities' accuracies should becomparable to or exceed those of the Hipparcos parallaxes.

Mass determination of astrometric binaries with Hipparcos. II. Selection of candidates and results
In a previous paper (\cite{Mar97}) we have shown that for double starswith orbital periods smaller than about 25 years, it was possible todetermine from the Hipparcos data, the mass ratio B of the components orthe difference between the mass and intensity ratios, beta -B, providedthe orbital elements of the relative orbit are available. From anextensive literature search we have selected 145 potential systems, ofwhich 46 yielded eventually a satisfactory solution. For eight systemswith the largest separations, the peculiarities of the natural directionassociated to the Hipparcos observations, the 'hippacentre', have beenfully exploited to derive the mass ratio of the components without anyadditional assumption. For the remaining 38, the derivation of the massratio was possible only by taking the magnitude difference between thetwo components from other sources. The parallax determinedsimultaneously, is then used to produce the individual masses of thecomponents. The astrophysical relevance of the results is discussed andwhen possible (17 systems) the masses are compared to ground-basedvalues.

The Tokyo PMC catalog 90-93: Catalog of positions of 6649 stars observed in 1990 through 1993 with Tokyo photoelectric meridian circle
The sixth annual catalog of the Tokyo Photoelectric Meridian Circle(PMC) is presented for 6649 stars which were observed at least two timesin January 1990 through March 1993. The mean positions of the starsobserved are given in the catalog at the corresponding mean epochs ofobservations of individual stars. The coordinates of the catalog arebased on the FK5 system, and referred to the equinox and equator ofJ2000.0. The mean local deviations of the observed positions from theFK5 catalog positions are constructed for the basic FK5 stars to comparewith those of the Tokyo PMC Catalog 89 and preliminary Hipparcos resultsof H30.

A critical test of stellar evolution and convective core `overshooting' by means of zeta Aurigae systems
Quantitative tests of late stellar evolution are presented by computingmodels with our evolutionary code to match the exact properties ofcertain zeta Aurigae eclipsing binaries and related non-eclipsingsystems. Those binaries have a late- type giant or supergiant primaryand their orbital inclination is well determined from either eclipses orspeckle orbits. They provide the only direct measurements of masses forsuch evolved stars, together with other well-determined physicalparameters. In the computations all effects of enhanced mixing beyondthe convective cores during central hydrogen burning stages, e.g., coreovershooting and any rotationally induced meridional mixing, arerepresented by a simple overshooting prescription. Its single parametercan be constrained to within 25 per cent of its value and leads to anovershooting length l_ov of ~0.24 H_P (pressure scaleheights) for 2.5Msolar, slightly increasing to ~0.32 H_P for 6.5 Msolar. Those valuesare required by our code to reproduce the well-determined luminositiesof the giants in or at the end of their blue loop. This new methodprovides the currently most sensitive test of the overshooting issue.

Classification and Identification of IRAS Sources with Low-Resolution Spectra
IRAS low-resolution spectra were extracted for 11,224 IRAS sources.These spectra were classified into astrophysical classes, based on thepresence of emission and absorption features and on the shape of thecontinuum. Counterparts of these IRAS sources in existing optical andinfrared catalogs are identified, and their optical spectral types arelisted if they are known. The correlations between thephotospheric/optical and circumstellar/infrared classification arediscussed.

Systematic Errors in the FK5 Catalog as Derived from CCD Observations in the Extragalactic Reference Frame.
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....114..850S&db_key=AST

A catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations: 1996 edition
A fifth Edition of the Catalogue of [Fe/H] determinations is presentedherewith. It contains 5946 determinations for 3247 stars, including 751stars in 84 associations, clusters or galaxies. The literature iscomplete up to December 1995. The 700 bibliographical referencescorrespond to [Fe/H] determinations obtained from high resolutionspectroscopic observations and detailed analyses, most of them carriedout with the help of model-atmospheres. The Catalogue is made up ofthree formatted files: File 1: field stars, File 2: stars in galacticassociations and clusters, and stars in SMC, LMC, M33, File 3: numberedlist of bibliographical references The three files are only available inelectronic form at the Centre de Donnees Stellaires in Strasbourg, viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (, or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Spectral classifications in the near infrared of stars with composite spectra. II. Study of a sample of 180 stars
A sample of 180 supposedly composite-spectrum stars has been studied onthe basis of spectra obtained in the near infrared (8370-8780 Angstroms)at a dispersion of 33 Anstroms/mm. The objective was to study the coolercomponents of the systems. Of our sample, 120 are true compositespectra, 35 are hot spectra of types B, F and 25 are Am stars. We find astrong concentration of the cooler components of the composite spectraaround G8III. In view of the difficulty of classifying compositespectra, because of the super position of an early type dwarf and a latetype giant or supergiant spectrum, we have made several tests to controlthe classification based upon the infrared region. Since all tests gavepositive results, we conclude that our classifications can be consideredas being both reliable and homogeneous. Table \ref{tab1} is alsoavailable electronically at the CDS via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstracts.html} Based upon observationscarried out at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS).

Mass determination of astrometric binaries with Hipparcos. I. Theory and simulation
The analysis of the observations of double stars made by the ESAsatellite Hipparcos has involved a very specific processing to derivethe relevant astrometric parameters. This required to distinguishbetween several categories of double stars according to the separationand orbital motion. We show that for close pairs with orbital periodless than about 20 years, the concept of photocentric orbit of anastrometric binary needs to be generalized to benefit fully from theaccuracy of Hipparcos. We introduce a point more naturally associatedwith the Hipparcos observations, the hippacentre, whose orbital path isnot longer similar to the relative keplerian orbit of the components,unlike that of the photocentre. For systems with separation larger thanabout 0.3", it is possible to determine separately the mass and theintensity ratio of the components from the absolute path of thehippacentre on the sky. For smaller separations the scale of thephotocentric orbit is recovered as a limiting case. The scope of thispaper is to set forth the principles of the method and to explore itspossibilities and limitations from extensive simulations. Based onobservations made by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.

Non-LTE model chromospheres of zeta Aurigae stars
Plane-parallel, one-component, non-local thermodynamic equilibrium(LTE), semi-empirical model chromospheres have been constructed for theprimary stars in the zeta Aurigae systems HR 6902 and 22 Vul. This hasbeen accomplished by means of radiative transfer calculations undertakenwith a non-LTE multilevel radiative transfer code, MULTI, and curves ofgrowth applied to chromospheric eclipse spectra. The former are thesubject of this paper, which is divided into two parts. The firstbriefly describes the observations and derivation of basic stellarparameters, while the second concerns the radiative transfercalculations and conclusions which follow from them. In particular, thecalculated model photospheres plus chromospheres are used to investigatethe relative contribution of primary and secondary stars to the overallradiation field. The radiation field of the hot secondary isapproximated by use of an appropriate Kurucz model atmosphere. Althoughthe hot companion is wholly responsible for the ionization of themetals, this is not the case as far as excitation is concerned. Use of a47-level Fe atomic model demonstrates the intimate convolution betweenatomic and atmospheric physics. The chromospheres calculated byradiative transfer methods are compared with those derived empiricallyby curves of growth and are found to be comparable in the line-formingregion of CaII H & K, MgII h & k and the many FeII lines.Finally, owing to the effects of radiative transitions from high-lyinglevels which are enhanced by the radiation field of the hot companion,it is found that lines resulting from transitions from the a^4F, a^4Dand a^4P levels of FeII may not be used to derive an inner windtemperature for 22 Vul. This is the first time that zeta Aurigaechromospheres have been the subject of such intensive radiative transfercalculations.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:02h54m15.50s
Apparent magnitude:3.95
Distance:76.046 parsecs

Catalogs and designations:
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Bayerτ Per
Flamsteed18 Per
HD 1989HD 17878
BSC 1991HR 854

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